RCMP say the crash occurred shortly before 4 p.m., on Highway 12 in the community of Aldersville, N.S.
Police say the driver of a Chrysler sedan was attempting to pass another vehicle when it struck an oncoming Volkswagen.
The Volkwagen was occupied by two people. Police say the driver of the vehicle sustained serious injuries and was transported via LifeFlight helicopter to hospital.
The passenger, a 71-year-old woman from Kentville, N.S., died at the scene.
The driver of the Chrysler was alone in the vehicle and police say she was taken to hospital with injuries.
An RCMP collision reconstructionist was called to the scene to examine the evidence.
Highway 12 was closed for several hours before it was re-opened at 11 p.m.
The Mounties say their investigation is ongoing.