The charges were announced and the indictment unsealed in New York City on Wednesday.
The indictment charges Collins and two others, including the congressman’s son, with conspiracy, wire fraud and other counts.
According to the indictment, the defendants tried to get early word on the results of tests by Innate Immunotherapeutics Limited.
The company developed a drug intended to treat Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
Collins has denied any wrongdoing.