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Study finds cannabis use during pregnancy affects birth weight, organ growth in newborns

Researchers found that daily use of cannabis among pregnant women caused a reduction in birth weight of eight per cent and decreased brain and liver growth by more than 20 per cent.
Researchers found that daily use of cannabis among pregnant women caused a reduction in birth weight of eight per cent and decreased brain and liver growth by more than 20 per cent. Pixabay / Pexels

A joint study from Western and Queen’s universities finds that daily use of cannabis during pregnancy can lead to reductions in birth weight along with decreased brain and liver growth in newborns.

The research, published in the journal Scientific Reports, used a rat model and human placental cells to study the effects of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, on pregnant women.

READ MORE: Cannabis during pregnancy linked to higher risk of pre-term birth — study

Researchers found that a rat model regularly exposed to a low dose of THC during pregnancy — a dosage that’s intended to mimic the daily use of cannabis — resulted in an eight per cent reduction in birth weight, along with a more than 20 per cent decrease in brain and liver growth.

Co-author Dr. Dan Hardy said the research backs previous studies that have linked cannabis use during pregnancy to low birth weight in newborns.

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“Clinical data is complicated because it is confounded by other factors such as socioeconomic status,” said Hardy.

“This is the first study to definitively support the fact that THC alone has a direct impact on placental and fetal growth.”

Click to play video 'A Kingston mother says there is still a stigma about pot use and parenting' A Kingston mother says there is still a stigma about pot use and parenting
A Kingston mother says there is still a stigma about pot use and parenting – Jan 4, 2020

Researchers say the growth reductions observed in babies are likely due to how THC was found to have affected the flow of oxygen and nutrients from the placenta into the developing fetus.

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Oxygen and nutrients struggled to reach the fetus, researchers say, after THC caused a decrease in the transfer of a glucose called GLUT-1. This means the mother’s body was unable to transfer glucose to the fetus during pregnancy, according to the study.

READ MORE: More pregnant women are using cannabis despite its dangers — study

Another observation in the study found what appeared to be reduced blood flow from the mother to the fetus.

Researchers hope the study will help clinicians communicate the risks of cannabis use during pregnancy.