What’s at stake in Israel’s parliamentary elections

Israel’s Netanyahu issues promise to annex Jewish settlements in West Bank ahead of election
WATCH ABOVE: Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a new campaign promise on Saturday, saying he would annex Jewish settlements in the occupied West Bank, ahead of the country's election on Tuesday.

Israel is holding the country’s 21st parliamentary elections on Tuesday, with over 6.3 million people eligible to cast ballots in a vote largely seen as a referendum on long-seated Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

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Here is a closer look at what to expect.

Chasing history

Netanyahu is seeking his fourth consecutive term and fifth overall, including an earlier stint in the 1990s. With another victory, Netanyahu will secure a place in history later this year as the longest-serving prime minister, surpassing Israel’s founding father David Ben-Gurion.

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Netanyahu faces tough opposition from his former army chief of staff, Benny Gantz, whose new Blue and White party seeks to replace Netanyahu’s long-dominant Likud.

WATCH BELOW: Israeli PM Netanyahu casts ballot in national elections

Israeli PM Netanyahu casts ballot in national elections
Israeli PM Netanyahu casts ballot in national elections

‘Corruption’ vs. ‘inexperience’

The three-month campaign has focused much more on personalities than issues. Netanyahu has tried to portray his opponent as weak and inexperienced. Gantz has tried to capitalize on a series of corruption investigations. The attorney general has recommended bribery and breach of trust charges against Netanyahu, who denies any wrongdoing.

WATCH BELOW: Netanyahu dismisses announcement of possible corruption charges

Israel’s Netanyahu dismisses announcement of possible criminal charges for corruption
Israel’s Netanyahu dismisses announcement of possible criminal charges for corruption

Wide range of parties

All 120 seats in the Knesset, Israel’s parliament, are up for grabs. A total of over 40 parties are competing, including large front-runners, ultra-Orthodox religious parties, Arab factions and fringe movements like the Pirate and Simply Love parties.

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WATCH BELOW: Tanks sit on Israel-Gaza border amid simmering tensions

Dozens of tanks remain situated on Israel-Gaza border
Dozens of tanks remain situated on Israel-Gaza border

But only a handful are expected to garner the 3.25 per cent of the vote necessary to break the electoral threshold and earn the minimum four seats in parliament. Ten parties made up the last Knesset.

High turnout

Israeli elections tend to have robust turnout. Election day is a national holiday, a measure aimed at encouraging participation. The last elections, in 2015, saw a 72 per cent voter turnout, the highest percentage since 1999, but below the 77 per cent average since Israel first went to the polls in 1949, a year after independence.

WATCH BELOW: All about Benjamin Netanyahu

All about Benjamin Netanyahu in 2 minutes
All about Benjamin Netanyahu in 2 minutes

Arab voters, who make up 20 per cent of the electorate, have threatened to boycott the election, accusing Netanyahu of inciting against them. That could have the unintended effect of helping the prime minister win a new term.

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Winner take nothing?

No Israeli party has ever won an outright majority, which forces the larger parties to form blocs with smaller allies.

After the election, Israel’s president will meet with party heads and select the party he believes is most capable of forming a coalition. That party, usually but not always the largest faction, then has four weeks to form a coalition. A new government will be given a four-year term, but disagreements between coalition parties often result in early elections.

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Should neither a right-wing nor left-wing bloc be able to form a coalition, Israel could face the prospect of a second election in November.