The Saudi-led coalition embroiled in a years-long conflict in Yemen announced on Monday that Emirati-backed southern separatists and the country’s internationally recognized government have agreed to a cease-fire after months of infighting.
The agreement aims to close the rift between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, nominal allies in a war against Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi rebels.
Coalition spokesman Col. Turki al-Maliki said delegates from the separatists’ Southern Transitional Council and the Yemeni government are meeting in the Saudi capital of Riyadh to push the implementation of a November 2019 deal that ended earlier fighting.
Violence has flared between the separatist group and government forces since the Southern Transitional Council declared self-rule over the key port city Aden and other southern provinces in April. The renewed clashes reopened a new front inside the larger civil war, which has killed over 112,000 people and ignited what the United Nations has labeled the world’s worst humanitarian crisis.
The intensifying split in the south has also hobbled authorities’ response to the coronavirus pandemic and complicated attempts to jump-start a wider peace process.
Al-Maliki denounced recent clashes in the remote island of Socotra in the Gulf of Aden, a UNESCO World Heritage site, as well as the southern province of Abyan. He urged all parties to “stop the bloodshed by adhering to the Riyadh agreement.” He said the coalition would deploy forces to monitor a cease-fire in the flashpoint Abyan governorate, which lies between government and separatist forces.
Nizar Haitham, a spokesman for the Southern Transitional Council, welcomed the coalition’s calls for a cease-fire and de-escalation across Yemen’s southern governorates. In a statement, he emphasized the urgent need to implement the Riyadh deal and thanked Saudi Arabia for its diplomatic role.
Three officials in the council’s leadership said that while the separatists stood by their declaration of self-rule, they were open to Saudi-led negotiations. They spoke on condition of anonymity because they weren’t authorized to brief the media.
Yemen’s descent into turmoil started in 2014 when the Shiite Houthi rebels overran the capital, Sanaa, and much of the country’s north, driving the government of President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi into exile.
A U.S.-backed, Saudi-led coalition intervened the following year to try and restore Hadi’s rule. The costly war has settled into a stalemate, compelling major regional players to seek a way out. This spring, Saudi Arabia declared a unilateral cease-fire, which quickly collapsed.
Last summer, the UAE withdrew its forces and said it was ending its role in the conflict. But experts say it continues to wield influence through its proxies to ensure control of key areas on Yemen’s 2,000 kilometres of coastline. The country lies on a strategic waterway leading to the Persian Gulf, through which much of the world’s oil flows.
The secessionist council, which is an umbrella group of heavily armed and well-financed militias propped up by the UAE since 2015, hopes to restore an independent southern Yemen, which existed from 1967 until unification in 1990.