Some facts about carbon monoxide

WATCH: The serious health risk carbon monoxide poses is prompting more calls for mandatory detectors in homes. Ted Chernecki has more on this silent killer, and how you can protect your family.

KAMLOOPS – A 15-month-old girl in Kamloops is being credited with saving her life, the lives of her parents, and the family’s several cats and dogs after carbon monoxide recently filled their home. The toddler was crying in the middle of the night, which alerted her parents: Here are a few key facts about the silent killer and some safety tips:

What is it?

Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless gas and can accumulate whenever fuel is burned. Common fuels include wood, natural gas, oil and propane. It is readily produced by internal combustion engines.

Why is it so dangerous?

If allowed to accumulate, it can fatally starve the human body of oxygen. Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in the bloodstream, normally has a spot reserved for the oxygen molecule. Carbon monoxide binds to that spot instead, preventing oxygen from being effectively carried to the rest of the body. High exposure to carbon monoxide can be fatal. According to Statistics Canada, 380 people died of accidental CO poisoning between 2000 and 2009.

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What are the dangers in the home?

Carbon monoxide can be generated from any fuel-based home appliance. These include stoves, barbecues, fireplaces, furnaces, water heaters, lawn mowers, power generators and tobacco smoke.

What are the symptoms of CO poisoning?

Early warnings of CO poisoning include headaches, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, shortness of breath and impaired motor functions. If exposed to low levels of the gas over a long time, the symptoms can include chest pain, poor vision and dizziness.

What precautions can I take?

Health Canada says every home should have at least one carbon monoxide detector installed to warn if CO levels pose a threat. An ideal location for a detector would be hallways outside bedrooms, since noise from the alarm could potentially wake up occupants in case of emergency. Health Canada recommends only buying detectors that have been approved by either the Canadian Standards Association or the Underwriters Laboratories of Canada. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States says CO detectors should be replaced every five years.

How can I prevent a dangerous CO incident?

Make sure all fuel-burning appliances and wood stoves are properly installed and professionally serviced. Have chimneys cleaned and appliances inspected annually. Do not run power generators or oil-based space heaters in enclosed spaces, including inside the home or an attached garage. Don’t leave motors running in the garage, even when the door is open. Keep tobacco smoke out of doors. Have your chimney checked or cleaned every year to make sure it is clear of debris. During and after a snow storm, inspect the exhaust vents for your dryer, furnace, wood-burning or gas stove, fireplace, and heat recovery ventilator to make sure they are not covered with snow.

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Is CO poisoning treatable?

CO poisoning is usually addressed by administering pure oxygen as quickly as possible, either through a mask or by spending time in a hyperbaric chamber.

(Health Canada, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Canadian Press)