The motion put forward in the House of Commons by the New Democrats was defeated 175-129.
The motion would also have called on the Liberal government to apologize for breaking the pledge.
WATCH: Liberals bail on long-held promise to change Canada’s voting system
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau promised on the campaign trail and in the speech from the throne to change the way Canadians cast their ballots in time for 2019.
The Liberal government abandoned that idea earlier this month, arguing their consultations on the issue did not produce a consensus on the best way forward.